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June 26, 2014
Contact: Office of Communications
Phone: 202-693-1999

OSHA urges increased safety awareness in fireworks industry in advance of July 4 celebrations

WASHINGTON - The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is urging the fireworks and pyrotechnics industry to be vigilant in protecting workers from hazards while manufacturing, storing, transporting, displaying and selling fireworks for public events.

"As we celebrate the July 4 holiday with fireworks and festivities, we must also be mindful of the safety of workers who handle pyrotechnics," said Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health Dr. David Michaels. "Employers are responsible for keeping everyone safe on the job and taking appropriate measures to protect workers from serious injuries or death."

Washington state occupational safety and health officials are investigating an explosion that occurred last week at a fireworks facility, killing one worker and injuring two more. In another recent incident, a worker suffered fatal burns caused by an explosion at a fireworks facility. OSHA cited the company more than $45,000 for safety violations relating to explosive hazards.

OSHA's Web page on the pyrotechnics industry addresses retail sales of fireworks and fireworks displays. Information on common hazards and solutions found in both areas of the industry, and downloadable safety posters for workplaces are available at It also includes a video, available at, which demonstrates best industry practices for retail sales and manufacturers based on National Fire Protection Association consensus standards.

Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. OSHA's role is to ensure these conditions for America's working men and women by setting and enforcing standards, and providing training, education and assistance. For more information, visit

Job Hazard Analysis Part 7

Why should I review my job hazard analysis?

Periodically reviewing your job hazard analysis ensures that it remains current and continues to help reduce
workplace accidents and injuries. Even if the job has not changed, it is possible that during the review process you will identify hazards that were not identified in the initial analysis.

It is particularly important to review your job hazard analysis if an illness or injury occurs on a specific job.
Based on the circumstances, you may determine that you need to change the job procedure to prevent similar incidents in the future. If an employee’s failure to follow proper job procedures results in a “close call,” discuss the situationwith all employees who perform the job and remind them of proper procedures. Any time you revise a job hazard analysis, it is important to train all employees affected by the changes in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures adopted.

When is it appropriate to hire a professional to conduct a job hazard analysis?

If your employees are involved in many different or complex processes, you need professional help conducting your job hazard analyses. Sources of help include your insurance company, the local fire department, and private consultants with safety and health expertise. In addition, OSHA offers assistance through its regional and area offices and consultation services. Contact numbers are listed at the back of this publication.

Even when you receive outside help, it is important that you and your employees remain involved in the process of identifying and correcting hazards because you are on the worksite every day and most likely to encounter these hazards. New circumstances and a recombination of existing circumstances may cause old hazards to reappear and new hazards to appear. In addition, you and your employees must be ready and able to implement whatever hazard elimination or control measures a professional consultant recommends.

Job Hazard Analysis Part 6

How do I correct or prevent hazards?

After reviewing your list of hazards with the employee, consider what control methods will eliminate or reduce them. For more information on hazard control measures, see Appendix 1. The most effective controls are engineering controls that physically change a machine or work environment to prevent employee exposure to the hazard. The more reliable or less likely a hazard control can be circumvented, the better. If this is not feasible, administrative controls may be appropriate. This may involve changing how employees do their jobs.

Discuss your recommendations with all employees who perform the job and consider their responses carefully. If you plan to introduce new or modified job procedures, be sure they understand what they are required to do and the reasons for the changes.

What else do I need to know before starting a job hazard analysis?

The job procedures discussed in this booklet are for illustration only and do not necessarily include all the
steps, hazards, and protections that apply to your industry. When conducting your own job safety analysis, be sure to consult the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards for your industry. Compliance with these standards is mandatory, and by incorporating their requirements in your job hazard analysis, you can be sure that your health and safety program meets federal standards. OSHA standards, regulations, and technical information are available online at

Twenty-four states and two territories operate their own OSHA-approved safety and health programs and may have standards that differ slightly from federal requirements. Employers in those states should check with the appropriate state agency for more information.

Job Hazard Analysis Part 5

Example Job Hazard Analysis Form

Job Location:
Metal Shop
Joe Safety
Task Description: Worker reaches into metal box to the right of the machine, grasps a 15-pound casting and carries it to grinding wheel. Worker grinds 20 to 30 castings per hour.
Hazard Description: Picking up a casting, the employee could drop it onto his foot. The casting's weight and height could seriously injure the worker's foot or toes.
Hazard Controls:
1. Remove castings from the box and place them on a table next to the grinder.
2. Wear steel-toe shoes with arch protection.
3. Change protective gloves that allow a better grip.
4. Use a device to pick up castings.

Job Location:
Metal Shop
Joe Safety
Task Description: Worker reaches into metal box to the right of the machine, grasps a 15-pound casting and carries it to grinding wheel. Worker grinds 20 to 30 castings per hour.
Hazard Description:Castings have sharp burrs and edges that can cause severe lacerations.
Hazard Controls:
1. Use a device such as a clamp to pick up castings.
2. Wear cut-resistant gloves that allow a good grip and fit tightly to minimize the chance that they will get caught in grinding wheel.

Job Location:
Metal Shop
Joe Safety
Task Description: Worker reaches into metal box to the right of the machine, grasps a 15-pound casting and carries it to grinding wheel. Worker grinds 20 to 30 castings per hour.
Hazard Description: Reaching, twisting, and lifting 15-pound castings from the floor could result in a muscle strain to the lower back.
Hazard Controls:
1. Move castings from the ground and place them closer to the work zone to minimize lifting. Ideally, place them at waist height or on an adjustable platform or pallet.
2. Train workers not to twist while lifting and reconfigure work stations to minimize twisting during lifts.

Repeat similar forms for each job step.

Job Hazard Analysis Part 4

• How likely is it that the hazard will occur? This determination requires some judgment. If there have
been “near-misses” or actual cases, then the likelihood of a recurrence would be considered high. If the pulley is exposed and easily accessible, that also is a consideration. In the example, the likelihood that the hazard will occur is high because there is no guard preventing contact, and the operation is performed while the machine is running. By following the steps in this example, you can organize your hazard analysis activities.

The examples that follow show how a job hazard analysis can be used to identify the existing or potential hazards for each basic step involved in grinding iron castings.

Grinding Iron Castings: Job Steps Step

Step 1. Reach into metal box to right of machine, grasp casting, and carry to wheel.
Step 2. Push casting against wheel to grind off burr.
Step 3. Place finished casting in box to left of machine.

Job Hazard Analysis Part 3

How do I identify workplace hazards?

A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. Your goal is to discover the following:
• What can go wrong?
• What are the consequences?
• How could it arise?
• What are other contributing factors?
• How likely is it that the hazard will occur?

To make your job hazard analysis useful, document the answers to these questions in a consistent manner.
Describing a hazard in this way helps to ensure that your efforts to eliminate the hazard and implement hazard controls help target the most important contributors to the hazard.
Good hazard scenarios describe:
• Where it is happening (environment),
• Who or what it is happening to (exposure),
• What precipitates the hazard (trigger),
• The outcome that would occur should it happen (consequence), and
• Any other contributing factors.

A sample form found in Appendix 3 helps you organize your information to provide these details.

Rarely is a hazard a simple case of one singular cause resulting in one singular effect. More frequently, many contributing factors tend to line up in a certain way to create the hazard. Here is an example of a hazard scenario:
In the metal shop (environment), while clearing a snag (trigger), a worker’s hand (exposure) comes into contact with a rotating pulley. It pulls his hand into the machine and severs his fingers (consequences) quickly.
To perform a job hazard analysis, you would ask:
What can go wrong? The worker’s hand could come into contact with a rotating object that “catches” it and pulls it into the machine.
What are the consequences? The worker could receive a severe injury and lose fingers and hands.
How could it happen? The accident could happen as a result of the worker trying to clear a snag during
operations or as part of a maintenance activity while the pulley is operating. Obviously, this hazard scenario
could not occur if the pulley is not rotating.
What are other contributing factors? This hazard occurs very quickly. It does not give the worker much
opportunity to recover or prevent it once his hand comes into contact with the pulley. This is an important factor, because it helps you determine the severity and likelihood of an accident when selecting appropriate
hazard controls. Unfortunately, experience has shown that training is not very effective in hazard control when
triggering events happen quickly because humans can react only so quickly.